STORY OF THE SINO-JAPANESE WAR 373
credited to Chiang, but he needed Japanese co-operation, which was promptly given by the Japanese navy. It should be noted that not a single Japanese had been killed to serve as pretext for the North China invasion. The best the Japanese could claim was that a Japanese private had been "missing." The similar case of a Japanese soldier missing in Shanghai in July after the Lukouch'iao incident threw the whole nation into consternation, and might have precipitated a war had not the diligent Chinese police searched and discovered him and found that he was ashamed to go back to the gunboat because of syphilis. To the great disappointment of the Japanese, the syphilitic sailor was returned and no more "missing/3 but soon a Japanese naval officer went to play golf with a revolver along the road running past the Chinese aerodrome at Hungch'iao ("Hungjao") and was shot dead. Two days afterwards, thirty-nine Japanese warships steamed up the Whangpoo at Shanghai to settle the incident peacefully. Chinese aeroplanes attacked the Japanese warships on August i3th? and the rest is old history.
Equally important with Chiang's declaration of July i6th, 1937, was his declaration of November ist, 1938, after the fall of Hankow and Canton. In this declaration one can read already the factors that make for ultimate Chinese victory, not because it contains a jumble of nice-sounding phrases, but because it is the analysis of the war by the mind which is going to direct it to the end, and the analysis is correct. The successful carrying out of this policy must spell Japan's doom,
In this manner the national leader outlined the policy of prolonged resistance after the fall of Hankow in his message to the nation:
... At the outset, the people should understand the meaning of the possession or loss of Hankow in the perspective of the war in general. The principal base of Chinese resistance during the war does not lie in the coastal regions or along the rivers, but in the vast interior, particularly in the Western provinces. This has been the fundamental policy for a prolonged resistance fixed by the National Government
The defence of Hankow had for its principal object the